Infantrymen are paid

Federal Army

The hunter troop - origin and history

The hunter troop developed from soldiers with special shooting skills and the ability to wage small wars. Their fighting style differed from that of the "normal infantry" and made them a valuable instrument of operational command. Their agile combat technique, precise and rapid fire fighting and high physical performance were their essential characteristics. Their effective procedures were ultimately adopted and applied by all infantry units. The infantry of the Austrian Armed Forces is known today as the "Jägerertruppe". This name does not only refer to their way of fighting and their origin - it became a quality and identification feature of the Austrian "foot soldier".

Origin and development

The first hunter formations emerged as special infantry units in the middle of the 17th century in the armies of Austria, Hesse, Prussia and Denmark. In the course of history, the hunter and sniper formations developed from the special troop to a widely usable "light infantry" and independent branch of the army. Innovations in weapons technology had a particular influence, as did socio-political and military law framework conditions. The hunter troop became an integral part of the Austrian army in the 19th century.

The first hunter formations

The main reason for setting up hunter units was to increase the fire effect due to the high accuracy of the rifles with rifled barrel. The high mobility and the ability to flexibly adapt the battle formations to the terrain were further advantageous skills. Their story began with professional hunters, rangers, foresters and voluntary "riflemen" who were only formed into small departments in times of war. In the beginning, the hunters mostly used their own hunting rifles.

Their professional skills made them capable lone fighters who could be put to good use in the army. Professional hunters can also find their way in the forest at night, read tracks and survive in snow and cold. You can stalk game and shoot accurately with your hunter's rifle. With these qualities they performed excellent services as scouts, outposts, reporters and, above all, as snipers.

During the Thirty Years' War (1618 to 1648), infantry companies were assigned to individual fighter troops, whose primary task was to shoot officers out of enemy lines. However, the hunter rifle - like the bow and the crossbow in earlier times - was long regarded as "unknightly" due to its accuracy and thus "unfair" advantage. That is why the snipers could not expect mercy if they were captured.

The hunters and foresters employed by the sovereigns were considered reliable and loyal, as they were tied to both their employer and their class. Recruited volunteer "shooters" or "snipers" also showed particular accuracy and high combat morale. In the countries of today's Austria, especially in Tyrol and Vorarlberg, an active rifle system was cultivated in the cities and rural communities for centuries. The most important prerequisite for this was the right of the country's residents to carry weapons. The sovereigns organized regular target practice for citizens and farmers. They particularly supported the cooperative rifle associations to promote national defense. In 1646 the Tyrolean sovereign had 1,500 hunters and riflemen recruited and for the first time formed his own troop. The rifle system favored the formation of hunter and sniper formations in the Austrian army. A special corps spirit was cultivated in their ranks, which gave them an elite character.

Infantry lineart tactics

The infantry could only defeat the enemy in fire fighting with as many hits as possible. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the accuracy of the smooth-barreled infantry rifles was poor. Therefore, the infantrymen were trained not to aim at individual soldiers, but to fire with closed volleys at the enemy mass. The rifle introduced towards the end of the 17th century with a flintlock firing mechanism, smooth barrel and finished powder charge (using a paper cartridge) could be loaded much faster. With this great innovation in weapon technology, the "linear tactics" method of fighting arose.

The infantrymen were set up in long, tightly closed lines in order to fire as many rifles as possible at the same time. The higher rate of fire lengthened the lines with the same number of soldiers and with it the number of rifles firing at the same time. The depth of the battle formation was reduced to three lines with the flintlock rifle. Until then, the riflemen were up to ten men deep. So many had to fire one after the other before the first reloaded.

The fighting style was characterized by stereotypical, almost mechanical drill movements. The line infantry advanced in lockstep, loading their rifles like a drill. After the guided mass fire, attempts were usually made to break into enemy lines in close combat with a bayonet. Particularly "drilled" line infantry achieved a great effect. For a long time the only effective means against this was artillery. The cohesion of the line formation and its machine-like movements were only promising in open and flat terrain. Attacks and rapid action in structured terrain were hardly possible with this clumsy combat formation.

Due to the increasing drill of the line infantry, the individual soldier lost more and more of his individuality and independence. The line infantrymen were mostly recruited from the poor and lower social classes by means of "conscription" (compulsory eviction). Discipline and obedience were enforced with severe penalties - the soldiers' initiative not encouraged. As a result, high morale and independence could not be achieved in combat. Nevertheless, the majority of the infantry fought in the linear formation until the era of the French Revolutionary Wars.

Hunter - moving combat

In order to improve the ability to attack and the mobility of the troops, the armies began to develop a more agile combat element - the "light infantry" - in addition to the line infantry. In the beginning, nature-loving ethnic groups from the forest and mountain regions were often put into this service. In this way their physical robustness and high motivation, as well as the mostly unconventional fighting methods, could be used. Among other things, there were in the British army light infantry formations like the "Gurkhas" from Nepal, in the Austrian army the Croatian "border guards" and the "Tyrolean hunters and snipers". These particularly defensive mountain dwellers or men from the country were of great importance, especially in the "small wars".

In North America's War of Independence (1775 to 1783), for example, the American settlers who knew no drill as line soldiers were able to assert themselves against the European line infantry. They were the better marksmen and used the terrain to their advantage. The "Rogers` Rangers", which, like the European "hunters", were made up of rangers and professional hunters, were particularly successful.

The hunter formations developed more and more from a special function to an independent light infantry force. Their agile manner of fighting in the covered terrain was clearly superior to the rigid combat formations of the clumsy line infantry. As a rule, they fought in open combat formation as so-called "skirmishers" in front of or on the flanks of the closed order of battle.

The hunters were particularly suitable for guerrilla warfare. Due to the special ability of mobile combat, light infantry troops were deployed in Austria on the border with the Ottoman Empire as border troops ("border guards") against invading gangs. Drills and exercises, as with the line infantry, were less strictly applied in the hunter troop. The focus here was not on the automatic execution of shooting and loading sequences in the linear and dense formations, but rather on fighting in a loose arrangement in smaller units. Therefore, they were able to make better and more flexible use of the terrain, the vegetation and all types of cover. Hunter units operated comparatively independently and independently.

In order to maintain the connection between the individual units in the relaxed fighting style, the connection over longer distances with acoustic horn signals was important. Because of this meaning, the "Jägerhorn" became a special symbol of the hunters' troops. The hierarchy of command was flattened and decision-making powers shifted to lower levels. In contrast to the line infantryman, the individual hunter had to be able to fight targets independently.

The hunters fought with rifles that had evolved from hunting rifles with rifled barrels and that made accurate hitting possible. The usual infantry rifles had smooth barrels, which were primarily designed for quick loading. Towards the end of the 18th century, hunters also used a large number of "wind rifles" (a type of air rifle). These wind rifles, operated with compressed air from a pressure vessel, were particularly suitable for ambushes, sneak patrols and secret expeditions (operations behind enemy lines; note).

Hunting units carried as little equipment as possible with them, most of which were transported with pack horses. They largely dispensed with carts ("baggage wagons"), which considerably increased their mobility in rough terrain. Since the early hunters were actually recruited from the ranks of professional hunters and foresters, they wore green uniforms, the color of which was later only left on the collar tabs. Due to the closeness to nature and the strong connection to their own country, the hunter formations developed a much higher morale than the line troops, which were mostly involuntarily forced into the combat formations.

Establishment in the army

In order to avoid confusion in the structural classification of the hunter troops in the army, one cannot avoid explaining the main features of the complex army system of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. In addition to a common army, there was also a territorial component with the Landwehr associations. The soldiers of the common army were either enlisted as mercenaries (also outside Austria) or recruited through conscription. In addition to the common army, in some countries of today's Austria there were independent defense systems with state militia troops. This customary military service was most widely and longest developed in Tyrol and Vorarlberg. For centuries, the free farmers and citizens defended their land in cooperative combat communities with their own weapons.

Since the recruitment for the joint k.k. Army was often difficult and costly, the Habsburgs increasingly involved the state militia for border protection and national defense. In Vorarlberg, Emperor Maximilian I agreed the "State Rescue Regulations" in 1511 and the "Landlibell" (document that regulated the Tyrolean military system; note) in Tyrol. In it, the states committed themselves to form their own state militia in the event of war. So Tyrol initially had 5,000 and later even up to 20,000 men. The "riflemen" for the state militia were selected by the judicial communities and trained in shooting. As a privilege in Tyrol and Vorarlberg, until the introduction of general military service in 1868, conscription for the joint k.k. Army largely waived.

Due to the defeat by Prussia in 1866, the k.k. was founded in 1868 to strengthen the army reserve. Landwehr set up with present rifle regiments. The state riflemen now became an integral part of the army, in which general conscription could also be served. Due to the parallel structures of a joint army and Landwehr organization, the troop designation between the hunters of the k.k. or k.u.k. Army and the state riflemen of the k.k. Landwehr be distinguished - in the fighting style, however, there was no difference.

The cooperative rifle associations in Tyrol and Vorarlberg were set up to promote the shooting training of the state militia with a shooting range regulation. The shooting societies were not included in the military organization. It was not until 1874 that the "Standschützen" registered with the "k.k. shooting ranges" became a k.k. with a change in the Defense Act. "Landsturm" obligated as "last contingent" in order to exhaust all military reserves.

Because of the special position of Tyrol and Vorarlberg under military law, the recruitment of voluntary riflemen and hunters for the common Austrian army had little success for a long time. Only threatened armed conflicts gave rise to additional voluntary hunter and sniper formations to support the k.k. Army to form. Due to the special promotion of the shooting industry, there was a great potential of accurate shooters available in Tyrol and Vorarlberg for the formation of hunter and sniper formations. To ward off the Bavarian incursion in 1703, sniper companies were mobilized and successfully deployed.

In the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763), hunters and snipers were recruited for the duration of the war and voluntary "hunter corps" were formed in the Austrian army. These units were without permanent organization and therefore not integrated into the permanent army structure.

The first permanently organized troop in Tyrol was the "Tiroler Landbataillon", which existed until 1745 during the War of the Spanish Succession in 1703. The weakness of the Austrian k.k. Army in conflict with Prussia demanded reinforcement of the army. Therefore Maria Theresa had a new "Tyrolean Field and Land Regiment" built in 1745 through free advertising. This Tyrolean regiment was assigned in 1769, with the number 46, to the ranks of the infantry regiments of the k.k. Army one. In Tyrol, however, the "sniper corps", which was part of the state contingent, had a higher reputation and a stronger attraction. This completed regular target practice and was less subject to military drill.

From this reservoir of trained snipers, at the beginning of the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778, the "Tyrolean Hunters and Sniper Corps" with 2,300 men was set up. Divided into departments, the snipers were assigned to the battalions of the infantry regiments for support. From this time on, the "hunters" were firmly established in the army.

Fenner hunters

With the "Tyrolean hunters and sniper corps" as its core, the first constantly organized hunter regiment in the k.k. Army, the Tyrolean Jägerregiment No. 64 (the k.k. Army already had 63 infantry regiments). After Tyrol and Vorarlberg had to be ceded to Bavaria in 1805, the regiment was transferred to the supplementary district of Villach. During the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon, the Tyrolean Jägerkorps ("Fenner-Jäger") was therefore formed with volunteers outside Tyrol and Vorarlberg. The Jägerkorps was named after its owner, Lieutenant Field Marshal Baron Fenner von Fennberg.

Tyrolean Kaiserjäger

After the fall of Napoleon in 1814/1815, the Congress of Vienna carried out the reorganization of Europe and granted Austria the Adriatic coast, Dalmatia and, in northern Italy, Venice and Milan. To ensure this increase, additional, permanently available troops were necessary.

Emperor Franz I therefore ordered a regiment of hunters to be set up in the regained states of Tyrol and Vorarlberg. On January 16, 1816, the formation of four hunter battalions with a core of "Fenner hunters" began. The new Jägerregiment was given the honor of bearing the name "Kaiserjäger".

Until the introduction of compulsory military service in 1868, each judicial district had to provide a certain number of recruits. In contrast to other Austrian provinces, the nobility in Tyrol was not exempt from military service.

This made recruiting easier - if not enough volunteers were found, the lot would decide. Moving out was a fateful affair for the individual, since the period of service in the years 1816 to 1868 first lasted twelve, then eight and finally six years. Both German-speaking and Italian districts were assigned to each regiment - the nationality ratio was around 3 to 2. The regimental headquarters were located in Innsbruck, where a battalion was also stationed.

The other three battalions were spread over several cities and towns in Tyrol and Vorarlberg. The regiment was strengthened over time and finally numbered 16 battalions in 1894.Because of the difficult manageability of these battalions, it came on l. May 1895 to a reorganization with four regiments. The newly established regiments were given the designation k.u.k. 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th regiments of the Tyrolean Kaiserjäger.

Independent military police battalions

As early as 1808, in addition to the Tyrolean Jägerkorps (from 1816 "Kaiserjäger"), nine independent military police battalions (FJgB No. 1 to 9) were set up as modern troops. They consisted of 675 soldiers each, divided into four hunter companies with four platoons of four groups each. In 1813 the FJgB No. 10, 11 and 12 were added. After the revolution of 1848 there was a further increase with the establishment of FJgB No. 13 to 25 and from 1859 with the formation of FJgB No. 26 to 32. From 1866 to 1880 the FJgB No. 33 to 40 were set up. This was the highest number of independent hunter battalions.

The 40 military police battalions were stationed in all parts of the empire. In the area of ​​today's Austria, there were FJgB No. 3 and 26 in Upper Austria, No. 8 and 35 in Carinthia, No. 9 and 27 in Styria, No. 10 and 21 in Lower Austria, No. 15 and 25 34 in Salzburg.

Compared with other countries in Europe at the time, Austria had the strongest hunting force at the end of the 19th century. The "Tiroler Jäger" and the independent hunter battalions received particularly suitable soldiers. Due to the higher requirements, these were paid better than "normal" infantrymen. It is therefore not surprising that the hunting troops enjoyed an increasing reputation. Her steadfastness and bravery in battle is documented by the highest awards.

Effects of the French Revolution

The French Revolution with its social change caused serious changes in the military style of fighting. An army of a completely new type emerged. The revolution, with its great social changes, abolished mercenaryism and the aristocracy's monopoly on officers.

With the "Levée en masse" (French: mass levy; denotes the type of conscription in France from 1793; note), the civil army was introduced, which identified with the state and voluntarily obeyed. The great change in the character of the officer corps (90 percent aristocrats before 1789 - later only 3 percent) and its opening to talented NCOs brought about a significant change in the way of thinking and the way of waging war.

The individual achievement was now more important than the social position of the officers or their descent. With their new sense of freedom, the citizens called up for the army were no longer ready to submit to strictly formal discipline. France also had few well-trained soldiers, but a large number of voluntary new citizens. The linear tactics could therefore only be applied imperfectly. This created an open order of battle, which, similar to the fighting style of the hunters, also worked in the cut (cropped; note) terrain.

The new form of combat, initially developed as a stopgap measure, due to a lack of trained soldiers, contributed significantly to the success of the French army. Light infantrymen (tirailleurs) dissolved in swarm lines (rifle chains) initiated the battle (skirmish battle) with targeted single fire, whereby the individual shooter exploited the existing natural cover. The main forces behind in close columns then stepped up to the storm and broke through at the enemy’s weak point.

The narrow and deep columns were easier to form and allowed faster movements than the long lines. With this fighting style, combat was possible in practically any terrain. The greater mobility on a larger battlefield was additionally supported by an expansion of the areas of responsibility of subordinates - within clear objectives and independent action (mission tactics). The French troops thus defeated the rigidly guided and immobile line formations. The French Revolutionary Wars with the new mobile combat command accelerated the expansion of the Austrian hunter troops. It was a matter of opposing the easily agile French tirailleurs with an equally agile and well-shooting troop.

Tasks and principles of use

There were initially no service regulations for the first hunter troops. From the end of the 18th In the 19th century, specialized "treatises on the service of military police on foot", written by officers with military experience, were used as a basis for training until the introduction of the first regulation. These gave the tactical tasks and essential operational principles of the hunter troop, which have an astonishing resemblance to today's regulations.

Excerpts: When "advancing" (advancing), the hunters are the "Avant Garde" (vanguard) to protect the marching troops from unexpected enemy action. "Side patrols" (side guards) are used to cover the flanks. During a backward movement, the hunters form the "Arrier Guard" (rear guard) in order to disrupt or prevent the enemy from pushing behind. The march of the hunters takes place in line formations, which develop a chain of rifles when the enemy comes into contact with the greatest possible use of the terrain. The hunter forces defend themselves against an attack by the enemy cavalry in open terrain by forming a "quarre" (square for "all-round defense"; note). The hunter patrols carry out the exploration of the area and the enemy reconnaissance and provide observers or security posts.

The courier services, as a link between the various units, are highlighted. Ambushes and raids on enemy troops, especially the enemy officers' staff, are cited as effective forms of combat. All of these tasks require a high level of training, independent action in a disintegrated formation and independent firing on recognized goals in "plank manner". The ability to read maps and draw up sketches of the terrain was also required. With all this it was always important to avoid getting involved in larger, "useless" battles. In 1805, in addition to the hunter's horns, the optical telegraph was introduced for the rapid transmission of orders. These were devices (mostly mounted on towers) that used flashing mirrors to pass messages in the form of optical signals from station to station.

Regulation of hunter training

According to the "Training and Exercise Regulations 1841", the training was to be designed in such a way that the hunter understood the orientation for the small war and differed from the line infantry through his skill. The shooting training was given the highest priority and the fulfillment of clear hit results was required. The neck hunters (equipped with hunter necks with a rifled barrel) were never allowed to miss the upper torso of the enemy depicted on the target within the firing range (350 paces). The carbine shooters, on the other hand (they had carbines with a smooth barrel), only had to hit the targets with accuracy from 250 paces.

The shooting performance of the team was particularly emphasized by awarding good shooters with special symbols such as honor powder horns and, from 1868, the shooting award (green cord with five round balls of wool). In the shooting instructions, training in distance estimation was given high priority. Precise shooting results could only be achieved with the most precise adjustment of the sight to the target range. The results of the running distance estimation exercises in different terrain in different weather were recorded as well as the shooting results. After 20 estimates, with an average of a maximum of twelve percent deviation at different distances (from 200 to 2,000 paces), a hunter was classified as reliable and the company commander awarded him the "Distance Estimation Award".

In the hunter battalions, apart from the shooting competitions, competitions in distance estimation were held regularly. The "Training and Exercise Regulations 1841" determined the special combat training in Tiraillieren (open combat form). The capture and rapid change of the combat formations - swarm line, row, column, quarre - with their mixed forms, the use of the area for cover and for mutual fire support were heavyweights of the training. Great attention was paid to the defense of bridges, mountain passes and villages, as well as attacks in the forest and in towns. Due to their special abilities, the hunter troop rapidly developed into a fully usable infantry troop. The drill regulations of 1851 and the training regulations of 1856 stipulated that the hunter is primarily intended to fight the enemy in an open order "hand to hand". In addition, he must have the ability to face the opponent in a closed order. The hunter troop could also be used for bayonet attacks.

The bitter experiences against breech-loading rifles (needle guns) of the Prussian army in the battle of Königgrätz (1866) led to the weapon being armed with breech-loading rifles in 1868. The tactical operational principles and the combat training have been adapted to the new rate of fire. The "Training and Exercise Regulations 1868" emphasized the use of the effect of fire more strongly than earlier regulations. The new regulations required that any attack should be prepared with combined intense fire. The swarm lines (rifle chains) were now deployed together with the following support parts and reserves. In scattered combat, a quarter of the combat troops were in the swarm line, a quarter for support and two quarters for the reserve. From 1872 uniform shooting instructions were issued for the hunter troops and the infantry. In addition to the conduct of combat, the drill regulations regulated the implementation of "gymnastic exercises" (sport) for the first time since 1875 to prepare the troops for combat.

Armament

The first hunters' troops were armed with the ball sockets or rifles made for hunting with rifled barrels and flintlock ignition. Ignition by means of a flint, which strikes a metal surface with the tap and ignites the black powder in the powder pan with the resulting sparks, was unreliable in wet conditions. From 1759, the Austrian army created uniform, standardized armament with military hunter socks. A bayonet was initially dispensed with. In contrast to infantry rifles with a smooth barrel (in which the bullet rolls into the barrel almost by itself), a small piece of greased fabric (plaster) first had to be placed on the muzzle when loading a nozzle. This was followed by the lead bullet, which was only allowed to have minimal leeway with the barrel caliber (initially 14.8 mm) and, together with the plaster, was larger than the caliber. Both had to be hammered into the multi-edged muzzle with great effort. Only then could the "paved" ball be pushed with the ramrod up to the powder charge. This became more difficult from shot to shot due to the combustion residue from the powder. Due to the arduous nature of the loading process, the hunter could only fire a shot every two to three minutes.

Due to the slow rate of fire, the hunters came into trouble, especially against attacking cavalry. That is why they were partly equipped with faster-firing infantry rifles (with a smooth barrel) that were used in the first class. As an ideal solution, the double nozzle with a drawn and a smooth barrel was developed. Due to the higher costs, however, the entire hunter troop was not equipped with this weapon. Hirschfänger (a stabbing weapon around 50 cm long) were initially used for hand-to-hand combat. From 1796 the Jägerstutzen got a hood bayonet ("all-purpose knife"; attached to the short weapon, it could be struck and "hewn"; note), which was more effective especially in close combat with the cavalry. In 1807, in addition to the Jägerstutzen, a short Jäger carbine with a smooth barrel was introduced for two thirds of the crew in the first and second section. Only the best shooters in the third section and all non-commissioned officers carried the more accurate sockets with them.

The general introduction of percussion / capsule ignition (from 1854) with mercury-filled copper primers accelerated charging and greatly increased reliability in bad weather. Only when the muzzle loading rifles with the "Lorenz M 1854" system proved to be completely inadequate against the Prussian needle rifle in 1866, the introduction of breech loading rifles with rimfire cartridges made of copper was accelerated. The Lorenz rifles were initially converted into breech-loading rifles with a flap using the "Wänzel" system (Viennese gunsmith who developed this system; note). In 1867, with the breech-loading system "Werndl" (rifles with a "Tabernackel" lock, designed by Karl Holub and Josef Werndl; note) from Steyr with a cylinder lock, an identical rifle was introduced for the first time for the infantry regiments and the hunter associations.

The next major development in weapon technology was the repeating rifle, which for a long time was accused of wasting ammunition in Europe. Only long after rifles with metal cartridges were successfully used in barrel magazines and repeating mechanisms in the American Civil War (1861 to 1865), this system became established in Austria. After testing various systems, the Navy introduced a rifle with a tubular magazine from the "Kropa-tschek" system. In the end, the Steyr repeating rifle system "Mannlicher", with a straight pull lock and a box magazine for inserting entire cartridge packages, became the standard weapon for the entire Austrian army. Rifles, carbines and nozzles were made from this model series 95 weapon system. The latter, however, only for the mountain troops. The machine gun was introduced as a troop weapon in the Austrian army units around 1900.

Uniforms of the hunters

The black hunter's hat with an upturned brim and the large hunter's horn with the Tyrolean coat of arms or the number of the battalion was introduced in 1811, the plume in 1841. Together with the grass-green lapels on the tunic, it marked the old Austrian hunter for a century. With the standardization of uniforms for the entire infantry in 1871, the field cap with a black peak and fold-down ear and neck protection was also introduced to the "hunters". The hunter's hat was only worn to the exit and at parades.

Hunters and riflemen as mountain troops

The Austrian hunter troops in the Alpine countries have been used for border security and operations in the mountains since their beginnings. However, they were not referred to as mountain troops. The Tyrolean Land Battalion, the Tyrolean Hunter and Sniper Corps and the Tyrolean Jägerregiment No. 64 can be described as the oldest mountain troops in the Austrian army. A separate mountain brigade was formed for the first time in 1878 for the invasion of Bosnia and Herzegovina. These differed from the normal field troops mainly in the special transport equipment for the mountains.

As the first official Austrian high mountain troops in 1906 in Tyrol and Vorarlberg, the state rifle regiments I to III of the k.k. Landwehr specially trained and equipped for use in the high mountains. During the First World War, the state riflemen were renamed Kaiserschützen due to their special qualifications. The mountain troops wore an edelweiss on the green collar tab and a wood grouse feather (cock thrust) on their cap.

At a glance

The hunter troop initially developed from soldiers with special functions - as snipers as well as specialists in small warfare and scattered combat - into fully deployable light infantry. In addition to the innovations in weapons technology, political and social changes such as the French Revolution had a significant influence on the further development and expansion of the hunter troop.

In Austria, the tasks of the hunters basically also included work in the mountains. A special specialization for combat in the high mountains did not begin until shortly before the First World War with five regiments of the k.k. Landwehr in Tyrol, Vorarlberg and Carinthia. The fighting style of the hunters repeatedly gave impetus to innovation for infantry tactics. Ultimately, the operational principles of the hunter troop for mobile combat and fire fighting were adopted by the entire Austrian infantry.


Author: Brigadier Ernst Konzett, born 1955. Since 2011: Military commander of Vorarlberg. 1973 One year volunteer. 1974 Completion of the Jagdkommando basic course, 1975 to 1978 officer training at the Theresian Military Academy - weapon type Jäger, 1979 to 1982 platoon commander at the Jagdkommando, from 1982 commander of the 1.Jägercompanie / Jägerbataillon 23, 1996 to 1999 commander of the Jägerbataillon 33 (militia), 1999 to 2003 commander of the Jägerbataillon 23, 2003 to 2010 commander of the 6th Jäger Brigade. Foreign missions: 1987/88 company commander at AUCON / UNFICYP in Cyprus, 2001 battalion commander at AUCON4 / KFOR in Kosovo. Member of the army mountain guide training cadre, state-certified mountain and ski guide; climbed among others the north face of the Eiger and the most difficult mountains in South America and Alaska.