What facts is China focusing on?

The nationalities

China is a unified multi-ethnic state. So far, the number of nationalities confirmed by the central government is 56, of which the Han nationality is the largest ethnic group, while the remaining 55 nationalities make up a small proportion. The latter are known as national minorities.

According to the sample of 1% of the population across the country in 2005, the population of the 55 national minorities was 123.33 million, which was 9.44% of the total population. 18 nationalities each have at least one million members. The Zhuang nationality with about 16.18 million people is the largest national minority, while the Lhoba nationality is numerically the smallest national minority with only about 3000 people.

The Han nationality can be found all over the country, with a particular concentration in the catchment areas of the Yellow River, the Yangtze, the Perl, the Songhua and the Liaohe Rivers. The remaining nationalities, although small in number, are spread out over large areas that make up 60% of the total land area. The Han nationality has long had political, economic and cultural ties with other national minorities, which has created a national relationship of interdependence and development. The peoples of all nationalities in China have made their own important contributions to building a unified and multiethnic state, creating an ancient brilliant Chinese culture, and advancing the development of Chinese history.

Brief information about the nationalities

Han: Main nationality of China, about 1.2 billion people; they are predominantly found in the catchment areas of the Yellow River, the Yangtze and the Pearl River, but also throughout the country. The Han Chinese language is the widely used language of the Han and most of the national minorities nationwide.

Mongols: Today around 5.81 million people, of whom 4 million or 68.7% live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, but also in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, where the number of Mongolian inhabitants is at least 100 000 is. Mongols used to be nomads, today they are mostly sedentary. They have their own language and script.

Hui: Over 9.82 million people, of whom 1.86 million or 18.9% live in the Ningxia Autonomous Region of the Hui Nationality, including Beijing, Hebei, Liaoning, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Yunnan, the Inner Autonomous Region Mongolia and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, where the number of Hui nationals is at least 200,000. You profess Islam.

Tibetans: About 5.42 million people, of whom 2.43 million or 52.84% live in the Tibet Autonomous Region, the others in Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai and Yunnan. You profess Tibetan Buddhism. The Tibetan language and the Tibetan script are used in Tibet.

Uighurs: About 8.40 million people, 8.35 million or 99.36% of them live in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. You are Muslim. They use the Uighur language and script.

Miao: About 8.94 million people, of whom 4.30 million or 48.10% are distributed in Guizhou, but also in Yunnan, Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong, Chongqing, Sichuan and the Guangxi Autonomous Region of the Zhuang Nationality, in where the number of Miao members is at least 100,000. They have their own language and script.

Yi: About 7.76 million people, they are one of the oldest nationalities in China and are mainly distributed in the provinces of Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou and in the northwestern part of the Guangxi Autonomous Region of the Zhuang nationality. Although they live in extensive areas also inhabited by other nationalities, they have their own settlements or villages everywhere. They have their own language and script.

Zhuang: The largest ethnic minority group in China with a population of around 16.18 million people, of which 14.21 million or 87.81% live in the Guangxi Autonomous Region of the Zhuang nationality, the others in the neighboring provinces of Yunnan, Guangdong (over 100 000) and also in Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan and Hebei (at least 10,000). They use the Zhuang language and script as well as the Han script.

Buyi: About 2.97 million people, most of the Buyi people are in the southern part of Guizhou Province and the rest in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces and Guangxi Autonomous Region of Zhuang Nationality. They use the Buyi language and script as well as the Han script.

Korean: About 1.92 million people, Yanbian Autonomous District in Jilin Province is their main residential area. They are also distributed in Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. They have their own language and script.

Manchurians: About 10.68 million people, they are the second largest national minority in China after the Zhuang nationality. They live mainly in northeast China; most live in Liaoning Province, with a small proportion in large and medium-sized cities in other provinces.

Dong: About 2.96 million people, mainly in the border areas between Guizhou and Hunan Provinces and the Guangxi Autonomous Region of Zhuang Nationality. They have their own language and script. They also use the Han script.

Yao: About 2.64 million people, they are mainly distributed in Guangxi, Hunan, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou and Jiangxi and have their own language. However, they use the Han script.

Bai: About 1.86 million people, most of whom live in the Bai Nationality Dali Autonomous District in Yunnan Province, and a small proportion live in Guizhou, Sichuan and Hunan Provinces. You profess Buddhism. They have their own language and use the Han script.

Tujia: About 8.03 million people, mainly living in the Xiangxi Autonomous District of Tujia and Miao Nationality in Hunan Province and Enshi Autonomous District of Miao Nationality in Hubei Province, the others are in Sichuan and Guizhou. They have their own language and use the Han script.

Hani: About 1.44 million people, they live in the mountain area between the Honghe and Lancang rivers in Yunnan Province and do agriculture. They have their own language and script.

Kazakhs: Over 1.25 million people, 99.57% of them live in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and the rest in Gansu and Qinghai. they are muslims. They have their own language and script.

Dai: About 1.16 million people, they live mainly in Xishuangbanna and other areas of Yunnan Province, most of them are Hinayana Buddhists. They have their own language and script and also use the Han script.

Li: About 1.25 million people, they are distributed in the south-central area of ​​Hainan Province. They use the Li language and the Li script and also use the Han script.

Lisu: 634,900 people, mainly living in the northern part of Yunnan and in the border area between Yunnan and Sichuan. They have their own language and script.

Wa: 396,600 people, mainly in the southwest part of Yunnan Province. They have their own language and script.

She: 709,600 people, mainly in the mountainous areas of southeast China's Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces, the others in Jiangxi, Guangdong and Anhui Provinces. They use the Han language.

Gaoshan: 400,000 people, most of them living in the central area and the eastern plain of Taiwan Province; they are the main national minority on the island of Taiwan; a small part live in the coastal areas of Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. They have their own language.

Lahu: 453,700 people, mainly in the Lancang River basin in the southwest of Yunnan. They have their own language and script.

Shui: 406,900 people, concentrated in the southeastern part of Guizhou and part of them in the western part of the Guangxi Autonomous Region of Zhuang Nationality. They use their own language and the Han script.

Naxi: 308,800 people, mainly from the Lijiang area of ​​Yunnan Province. The Dongba script they created is the only well-preserved pictography. They use the Naxi language and the Han script.

Dongxiang: 513,800 people, mostly living in Gansu Province, while some of them live in Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang. They use the Dongxiang language and the Han script.

Jingpo: 132 100 people, their ancestors originally lived in the southern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, then gradually moved to the south of the country. Now they mainly live in the western part of Yunnan Province. They have their own language and script.

Bulang: 91,900 people, mainly from Menghai County and surrounding areas in Xishuangbanna Autonomous District of the Dai Nationality in Yunnan Province. They use the Bulang language and the Han script.

Kyrgyzstann: 160,800 people, they are concentrated in the southwest part of Xinjiang. They used to be nomads, today they are essentially sedentary. They have their own language and script.

Do: 241,200 people, they are concentrated in the eastern part of Qinghai Province. They use the Tu language and the Han script.

Dahuren: 132,400 people, spread along the banks of the Nenjiang River in northeast China and in the Tacheng District of Xinjiang. They use the Dahuren language and the Han script.

Mulao: 207,400 people, 90% of whom reside primarily in Luocheng Autonomous County of Mulao Nationality in the northern part of Guangxi Autonomous Region of Zhuang Nationality. They use the Mulao language and the Han script.

Qiang: This is one of the oldest nationalities in China. In the oracle bone inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty over 3000 years ago, records of the Qiang were already found. That nationality now has a population of 306,100 people, mainly concentrated in the Aba Autonomous District of the Qiang Nationality, Sichuan Province. They use the Qiang language and the Han script.

Sala: 104,500 people, mostly living in some areas of Qinghai, Gansu and Xinjiang. They use the Sala language and the Han script.

Tajiks: 41,000 people, they are concentrated on the Pamir Plateau in the southwest part of the Uyghur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang and mainly practice cattle breeding and agriculture. They use their own language and the Uighur script.

Maonan: 107,200 people, mainly distributed in Huanjiang County, northwestern part of Guangxi Autonomous Region of the Zhuang Nationality. They use their own language and the Han script.

Gelao: 579,400 people, mostly concentrated in Wuchuan Autonomous County of Gelao and Miao Nationalities and Daozhen Autonomous County of Gelao and Miao Nationalities in Guizhou Province, and the remainder live in Yunnan and Guangxi . They use their own language and the Han script.

Xibo: 188,800 people, mainly in the Qapqal Xibo Autonomous County, Ili District, Xinjiang, Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces. They have their own language and script.

Achang: 33,900 people are concentrated in the Dehong Autonomous District of the Dai and Jingpo Nationalities in Yunnan Province. They use the Achang language and the Han script.

Pumi: 33,600 people, mostly living in the north-western mountain range of Yunnan Province. Their ancestors came from northwest China, making the Pumi one of China's national minorities who traveled long distances to be relocated. They use the Pumi language and Han script.

Nu: 28,800 people, they live mainly on the banks of the Nujiang River in Yunnan Province, where other nationalities also live.

They use the Nu language and the Han script.

Uzbeks: 12,400 people, mostly in the Uyghur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang. They have their own language and script.

Russians: Over 15,600 people, most of whom live in Ili, Tacheng, Altay and Ürümqi in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the others are in Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They have their own language and script.

Evenks: 30,500 people, mainly in the Hulun Buir Bund of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and some counties in Heilongjiang Province. The Evenks are the only nationality in China that breeds reindeer animals.

They use their own language and the Mongolian and Han script.

Bao'an: 16,500 people, they live in Gansu Province. They are a relatively young nationality that gradually emerged from the marriages of Mongols who professed Islam and members of the Hui, Han, and Tu nationalities, as well as Tibetans. They use the Bao'an language and the Han script.

De'ang: 17,900 people, they live mainly in Yunnan Province and use the De'ang language and Han script.

Yugur: 13,700 people, mainly distributed in Sunan Autonomous County of Yugur Nationality in Gansu Province and in Huangnibao Township of Yugur Nationality, Jiuquan City. They use the Yugur language and the Han script.

Tatars: 4900 people, they live mainly in Yining, Tacheng and Ürümqi in Xinjiang and profess Islam. They have their own language and script.

Lhoba: 3000 people, they live mainly in Mainling, Medog, Zayü, Lhünze and Nang in the Nyingchi area of ​​the Tibet Autonomous Region. This numerically smallest nationality uses the Lohba language and the Han script.

Jino: 20,900 people, mostly from Jino Township, Jinghong City, Xishuangbanna Autonomous District of the Dai Nationality of Yunnan Province. They use the Jino language and the Han script.

Dulung: 7400 people, mainly concentrated in the valleys on the banks of the Dulung River in the western part of Yunnan Province.

They use the Dulung language and the Han script.

Oroqen: 8,200 people, distributed in the Hulun Buir Bund of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They use the Oroqen language and the Han script.

Hezhe: 4600 people, they live mainly on the banks of the Songhua, Heilong and Wusuli Rivers in the eastern part of Heilongjiang Province. This is the only nationality of China mainly engaged in fishing. They use the Hezhe language and the Han script.

Moinba: 8900 people, they are mainly distributed in the districts of Medog and Cona in the Tibet Autonomous Region and have their own language, but use the Tibetan script.

Jing: 22,500 people, they live mainly in the villages of Wanwei, Shanxin, Wutou and Tanji near the town of Fangchenggang in the southern part of Guangxi. They have their own language and use the Han script.

comment: The above statistics are from the 5th 2000 census.