Is geographic discrimination a job issue?

Forms of discrimination

Discrimination comes in different forms. In addition to the direct forms, which are usually clearly perceived as discrimination, at least by those affected, a distinction must be made between other forms of discrimination that are more difficult to recognize and to combat.

Direct discrimination

A direct - or direct - discrimination exists if a regulation or measure explicitly provides for discriminatory unequal treatment. Direct discrimination is, for example, the regulation of a day nursery to automatically charge higher costs for a child with Down syndrome on the grounds that children with disabilities require more effort. A directly discriminatory act is also present if a person is not employed because of their national origin or is not admitted into a pub with reference to the color of their skin.

Indirect Discrimination

A indirect - or indirect or hidden - discrimination occurs when a regulation or measure is formulated neutrally and does not contain any obvious disadvantage to certain groups, but its actual application has such an effect that the members of a certain group are regularly disadvantaged. If, for example, there are no career opportunities for part-time workers in a company and part-time work is predominantly carried out by women, then there is indirect discrimination against women, since their chances of promotion are lower than those of full-time men.

Indirect discrimination is often not easy to detect and prove. However, if it can be statistically proven, for example, that a regulation or measure disadvantages a specific group of people numerically more frequently and the unequal treatment reaches a certain intensity, then there is legally inadmissible discrimination, provided that there is corresponding legal protection against discrimination.

Structural Discrimination

Structural discrimination is used when the disadvantage of individual groups is justified in the way society is organized. The type of coexistence that has grown over decades and centuries (division of labor, distribution of decision-making powers, etc.) is usually associated with patriarchal, post-colonial, homophobic, religious or whatever kind of and justified conventions, customs and traditions that give privileges to individual groups or . Make other groups appear worse off as ┬źnormal┬╗ and given. This form of discrimination, which is inherent in all societies, is also not always easy to recognize, since existing and familiar structures are often not questioned and are not recognized as discriminatory by those affected themselves.

Institutional Discrimination

We speak of institutional discrimination when the internal rules, habits and processes of an institution - possibly in combination with structural discrimination - mean that members of certain minorities are regularly disadvantaged by the institution. This is discussed, for example, in primary schools, where children with a migrant background are often disadvantaged in terms of their success in school (e.g. through predefined evaluation patterns for language skills or through unconscious expectations of the teachers).

Multiple discrimination and intersectional discrimination

A person often combines various characteristics that make them particularly susceptible to discriminatory treatment (e.g. gender, a disability, foreign origin, skin color, religious affiliation, age, social status, etc.). Such persons run the risk of being exposed to multiple discrimination in different contexts (so-called additive Discrimination), or the different characteristics together result in stronger and more frequent discrimination (so-called. reinforcing Discrimination).

If the simultaneous interaction of different characteristics triggers discrimination, one speaks of intersectional Discrimination. If someone is dark, young and male, the risk for that person of being controlled by the police on suspicion of drug trafficking in certain urban areas is greatly increased.

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