Is IQ discrimination harmful to society?

Discrimination in the housing market / rental of commercial space

Situation:
A man with a “foreign-sounding name” calls a property management company and inquires about free commercial space for his future office as a business consultant. An employee of the property management asks: “What was the name?” When the caller's answer is: “Öztürk”, the property manager replies: “No, it's already taken!”

Explanation:
Almost 70% of people with (ascribed) migration experience feel discriminated against when looking for accommodation. This is confirmed by the representative Forsa survey “Opinions on discrimination against people based on ethnic origin” by the Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency from 2014. However, it is very difficult to actually prove disadvantages in renting. Decision-making processes in the allocation of apartments are mostly hidden from the applicants.

Situations:
A man with a large crowd of children strolls through a park during the day when the weather is nice. Other passers-by complain: "Why don't they go to work!"

A woman with a headscarf is insulted in public transport: "Go back to where you came from". She replies: "I'm from Kiel!"

Explanation:
The man in the park works in shifts as a bus driver and enjoys the day off with children and neighbors' children. The woman on the bus experiences the sentence “Go where you come from!” As racist discrimination, as such a statement assumes that she cannot be German because of her headscarf and that she does not really belong here. This sentence, as well as the question “Where are you from?”, Exemplifies the daily racism with which black people, people of color and people with a migration history in Germany are often confronted. And that, although these population groups are at home in Germany or their main center of life, e.g. Some of them have been here for generations. On the basis of skin color and (alleged) religious affiliation, people with migration experience are excluded from the majority society.

Situation:
A woman in a sari walks past someone who reads a newspaper with the headline “Headscarf girls and other scapegoats”. She goes to her own dental office. In the window of her practice she can be seen again as a dentist.

Explanation:
In a racist speech in the German Bundestag on May 17th, 2018, the leader of the AfD, Alice Weidel, agitated against immigrants: "Burqas, headscarf girls and alimented knife men and other good-for-nothing will not secure our prosperity, economic growth and above all the welfare state". The entrepreneur Sara Naggar, whose father came to Germany from Syria, shows that Weidel is completely wrong with her claim. She is one of those who calls Weidel “good-for-nothing”. Because she also wears a headscarf. Your fashion label is doing well. "I pay a large amount of taxes myself every month," emphasizes the Hessin. Her success is impressive: she currently has three interns and two permanent employees. "Two of them also have a headscarf," she says with a laugh. Naggar contributes to prosperity in Germany with her small label (Focus May 20, 2018, https://www.focus.de/politik/deutschland/burkas-sichern-nicht-unseren-wohlstand-nach-islam-hetze-von-afd -chefin-muslimaerklaert-how-you-German-wealth-secures_id_8954106.html). Bundestag President Wolfgang Schäuble expressed a reprimand against Weidel for the discrimination against all "women who wear a headscarf".

Situation:
A woman with a headscarf sits in the counseling service at the job center, her application documents are in front of her. Although she has very good references and a flawless CV, she has only received rejections so far.

Explanation:
People with “foreign-sounding” names and women with headscarves are among the most disadvantaged groups on the German labor market. Muslim women with headscarves encounter various barriers in accessing education, training and the labor market. The requests for advice from the Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency (ADS) also confirm this: Muslim women wearing headscarves have a high risk of being discriminated against in the labor and training market. (Quote: Discrimination risks of Muslim women on the German labor market (2016) Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency.) The General Equal Treatment Act (AGG) prohibits, among other things. Discrimination in various areas of working life: in the selection of applicants, in career advancement, in remuneration, in training and further education
Etc.

Situation:
A young man from Afghanistan sits on a park bench in the morning and reads a book entitled “German”. A passing couple whispers. She says: "It's typical", he says: "Live at our expense". The young Afghan is teaching himself German.

Explanation:
Access to language courses is not equally available to all people. Integration courses, funded by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF), are reserved for those who have received a residence permit at the end of the asylum procedure or who are assigned “good prospects to stay”. People from countries with a “low” recognition rate, such as Afghanistan and Yemen, are denied access to German courses.

The official quota of the BAMF is 50% of recognized applications from the country of origin. Only those who come from such a country allegedly have good prospects to stay and thus the right to an early language acquisition. In August 2018, these included Syria, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq and Somalia. The official quota for people from Afghanistan has been systematically pushed below this mark. This is particularly incomprehensible, not only because their unadjusted overall quota was 55.8% in 2016, but above all because of the unchanged, highly dangerous situation in their home country. Many Afghans whose asylum applications have been rejected therefore receive a Duldung in Germany, often for many years. For them, too, attending an integration course (as early as possible) makes sense and is right.

Situation:
A personnel manager sifts through application documents. The documents of a woman with a headscarf and a name that does not sound “German-sounding” are placed directly on the “Rejection” pile, whereas the German applicant should be invited to an interview.

Explanation:
Applicants with a migration background often find it particularly difficult to be invited to an interview. Even your written application documents are often sorted out because the name sounds “not German enough” or the photo looks “foreign”. Such reservations can also work unconsciously. This also happens to HR managers who are convinced that they are not acting like this. And some companies also say: Yes, if it were up to us, but the customers ... Several studies have shown discrimination in connection with appearance and name. So it turned out, for. For example, in a 2016 study by the Research Institute on the Future of Work, a woman “Meryem Öztürk” with a headscarf has to apply for a job 4.5 times as often as a woman “Sandra Bauer” without a headscarf to go to an interview to be invited. A similar attempt was made in 2014 by the Expert Council on Integration. 3,600 applications for training positions were sent: from the (fictitious) applicants Ahmet Aydin, Lukas Heumann, Tim Schultheiß and Hakan Yilmaz. Result: "Ahmet" and "Hakan" needed an average of seven applications to be invited to an interview, "Lukas" and "Tim" an average of five - although the qualifications did not differ.

Situations:
At the cash register: The cashier imagines how nice it would be to teach the boy arithmetic. In her home country she was a math teacher.

City cleaning: A garbage truck drives through the street. The employee imagines how nice it would be to treat a patient. He worked as a doctor in his home country.

Explanation:
In order to improve the professional recognition of the qualifications brought with them by people with a migration background, the Act to Improve the Determination and Recognition of Professional Qualifications Acquired Abroad (BQFG) was passed in 2012. Up to this point there was little appreciation for the qualifications that they brought with them. Immigrants were often placed in positions with significantly lower qualifications. The federal states are responsible for the recognition of many professions (e.g. educators, architects) and have passed their own specialist laws for this. These provisions may differ from one another. For example, in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, teaching staff has only been required to present one subject for recognition since 2017. In other federal states, two are still required. The law promotes professional integration and thus contributes to the appreciation of the qualifications brought along. The recognition process can, however, be associated with high costs and time. The qualifications can possibly only be partially recognized and that means for those affected the participation in further qualification measures or that certain specialist examinations have to be taken.

Situation:
You can see a grammar school as well as a secondary school and children and young people on their way to school and in the school yard. In high school a teacher says to a child with migration experience: "You don't belong here, you belong next door!"

Explanation:
In Germany, educational success is more closely related to social origin than in almost any other country. Although the performance of children with migration experience (ME) has improved significantly compared to children without ME, it is precisely with them that their social background plays a major role in their success at school. The International Basic Reading Studies (IGLU) show that children from socially disadvantaged and poverty-prone families do worse even in elementary schools. Children from families with a migrant background are significantly more likely to be affected by this. Various empirical studies come to the conclusion that pupils with a migration background must perform better than their German classmates in order to receive a recommendation for a grammar school.

Situation:
A company with four floors is visible in cross section. On the lower level you can see people working as cleaning specialists in the corridors, in the toilets and in the canteen. In the low-wage sector, people with migration experience are disproportionately employed. The more highly qualified and correspondingly paid jobs on the upper floors of the company are predominantly occupied by male Germans.

Explanation:
The disadvantage in the education sector has a serious impact on the professional opportunities of migrants. They work disproportionately in low-skilled and poorly paid professions. This social “underclassification” must be counteracted through labor market and educational policy. The projects in the IQ focus “Intercultural opening and anti-discrimination” are dedicated to this task. People with migration experience should be represented according to their share of the population (around 20%). To this day, this is not the case in many companies, especially not when you look at the upper floors. Too often the boss is still a "Mr. Schmidt" without a migration history. Companies can do a lot: For example, in their job advertisements they particularly encourage migrants to apply. You can design application procedures in such a way that they are language and culture fair and offer special support measures.

Situation:
On the Kiel Fjord, young people sit and have fun on a landing stage. It goes without saying that there are two women in burkini in the middle of it all.

Explanation:
A burkini (word play from burqa + bikini) is a swimsuit for women that completely covers the body except for the face, hands and feet. Some Muslim women and girls only bathe in burkini on public beaches and in outdoor pools and swimming pools. Since its appearance in Germany in the 2000s (as in other countries, sometimes even earlier), the burkini has been the cause of numerous public debates about the practice of religious diversity in everyday life. In Germany, the burkini is now known to most and is accepted with a few exceptions. Again and again, anti-diversity and anti-immigrant social currents try to instrumentalize the question of the burkini in order to create a mood against Muslims.

Situation:
In the yard of a car workshop, employees make fun of a praying Muslim colleague.

Explanation:
The praying employee is harassed in his religious practice. Behavior falls under the prohibited form of harassment if it violates human dignity and if it creates a hostile environment. Jokes can also be discriminatory. If jokes are constantly being made in the workplace about one's religion and its customs, it is discrimination. Even if this is done by third parties, e.g. B. happens to customers, this counts as discrimination, from which the employees must be protected by the employer.

Situation:
At the train station only one dark-skinned man is searched by the police, while all the other people go their way unmolested.

Explanation:
It violates the prohibition of discrimination anchored in the Basic Law (Article 3, Paragraph 3, Basic Law) if the police check people because of their skin color. This prohibited control practice is also known as “racial profiling”. For the purpose of an effective fight against crime, the Higher Administrative Court of Münster only considers an exception to this principle to be permissible if people with a certain skin color are disproportionately likely to commit crimes in the corresponding location (judgment of August 7th, 2018, Az. 5 A 294/16) .

Situation:
The boss sitting in the office throws the application documents of a woman wearing a headscarf in the trash.

Explanation:
The experience that the application is not considered despite suitable qualifications frustrates many applicants. Often their applications are sorted out in advance because the HR managers have prejudices against them. For example, women experience discrimination if the HR manager does not want to hire them because they could become pregnant and instead give preference to the male applicants. Documents from Muslim applicants are often sorted out because of the headscarf. That is also discrimination based on religion. In this scene, there is a twofold discrimination taking place. In such a case, one speaks of multi-dimensional discrimination.

Situation:
A black waitress hands the bill to a group of men. Some take out their wallets, but one of the customers gestures that they would give an extra tip for lewd touch.

Explanation:
First of all, it is sexual harassment. Sexual harassment violates human dignity. Not only unwanted sexual acts are included, but also comments of sexual content. The General Equal Treatment Act prohibits such acts and offers the possibility of taking legal action against them. The employer is obliged to protect his employees from such actions. This applies not only to customers but also to colleagues.

Situation:
The doorman of a discotheque refuses entry to foreign-looking male youths. He receives this instruction from his boss over the radio.

Explanation:
Discrimination at the disco door happens very often. "Foreign-looking" male adolescents are particularly affected. This can be multidimensional discrimination if the discrimination, as in this example, has several points of contact. Those affected are racially discriminated against (looking foreign) and also because of their gender (male) and their age (young). If the operator of the discotheque has given the bouncer such an instruction, this instruction is also regarded as discrimination and is prohibited. The instructing person is to be held responsible for this. The bouncer is allowed to oppose the discriminatory instruction.

Situation:
In a cafe, a woman looks for job advertisements in a newspaper. In an advertisement you can read: “Kitchen help - very good knowledge of German.” The woman looks frightened and intimidated.

Explanation:
If command of the German language at a high level is a requirement for employment without a good reason for it (it is objectively justified), it is so-called indirect discrimination. Discrimination is indirect if requirements, regulations or the like appear neutral at first glance, but in reality put a certain group of people at a particular disadvantage. People whose mother tongue is not German can be indirectly discriminated against on the basis of their ethnic origin. If a high language level is required, although it is not necessary for the job, they are particularly disadvantaged compared to people with German as their mother tongue.

Situation:
A harried-looking person with an AGG in hand rushes to the counseling center.

Explanation:
→ Did you know that, in the event of discrimination, you only have two months to exercise your rights under the General Equal Treatment Act
(AGG) to be asserted in writing?
→ Did you know that the AGG only protects against discrimination if the discrimination affects one of the six categories mentioned?
§ 1 AGG protects against racial discrimination or discrimination based on ethnic origin. There is also protection against discrimination based on gender, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual identity. You are therefore not protected from discrimination by the AGG. B. concern the external appearance, the social origin or an illness.
→ Did you know that the AGG applies to work and private business dealings? In working life, protection begins with the application process. Business transactions include B. go shopping,
Visit restaurants, open a current account, rent an apartment, etc.
→ Did you know that your employer has a duty under the AGG to protect you from discrimination and that you have various rights? ("Measures and obligations of the employer": § 12 AGG / "Rights of employees": §§ 13 - 16 AGG)

Situation:
The advertising column states which features the AGG protects: "Ethnic origin, gender, religion or belief, disability, age, sexual identity".

Explanation:
Equal access to work and education is the basis for social participation. Ethnic origin, gender, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual identity must not limit the chances of employment and education. One can and should defend oneself against discrimination in working life. There is the General Equal Treatment Act (AGG) in order to be able to use legal means to defend against disadvantages in working life. The law protects those affected by discrimination against discrimination in access to work as well as discrimination in the workplace. It obliges employers to refrain from discrimination and to take measures to protect employees. The law gives employees, among other things, Claims to refrain from discrimination and to compensation for disadvantages suffered in working life. The AGG prohibits employers from treating employees and job applicants differently for the reasons mentioned. According to the AGG, employers are also obliged to protect their employees from discrimination in the workplace by superiors, colleagues or third parties (e.g. customers).