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New Year (also: New Year's Day) is the first day of the calendar year. In almost all cultures, but with sometimes very different time calculations and thus also calendars, the New Year is associated with a New Year's festival, which is subsequently also celebrated at different times: Bahai: Naw Ruz, Buddhist and Taoist: Tết Nguyên Đán (Vietnam) and Chinese New Year, Christian: New Year, applies among others in Germany, Austria and Switzerland as a public holiday, Islamic: Hijra, Jewish: Rosh Hashanah, Iranian: Nouruz, Japanese: Japanese New Year. In the western cultural area, January 1st as the date for the beginning of the year has been widespread since the Middle Ages. Regardless of this, there were and are different dates in different regions and times, and in addition, different New Year's dates were sometimes used simultaneously in the same geographic areas. In 153 BC According to their calendar, the Romans moved the beginning of the year from March 1st to January 1st, the day the consuls took office. They also named the years after the terms of office of these consuls. The counting months (September, as much as the seventh, October, the eighth, November, the ninth, December, the tenth) lost their respective positions. Until the New Year's Day was established in 1691 by Pope Innocent XII. On January 1st, January 6th was the beginning of the year in large parts of Europe.
Easter (Latin: pascha; from Hebrew: pessach) is the annual commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus Christ in Christianity, who, according to the New Testament, overcame death as the Son of God. Since the salvation events there fell in a week of Passover, the date of this moving Jewish main festival also determines the date of Easter: It always falls on the Sunday after the first spring full moon, in the Gregorian calendar March 22nd at the earliest and April 25th at the latest. In the old church, Easter was celebrated as a unit of memory of suffering and resurrection celebration in the Easter vigil ("full pascha"). From the 4th century, the highest festival in the church year was developed as a three-day celebration (Triduum paschale) in a historicizing way. Since then, services in most liturgies have extended from the celebration of the Last Supper on Maundy Thursday evening - the eve of Good Friday - through Holy Saturday, the day of the Lord's rest in the grave, to the beginning of the new week on Easter Sunday. With this begins the Easter joyful time ("Easter time"), which lasts fifty days up to and including Pentecost. In the Middle Ages, a separate Easter triduum developed from the original triduum, which separated the first three days of the Easter octave from the rest of the celebration week. This non-working period was later shortened until only Easter Monday remained as a public holiday. The name Easter, which is commonly used in German, is of old Germanic origin and is probably related to the direction of the compass "East": The place of the rising sun is a symbol of the risen and returning Jesus Christ in Christianity. In many countries, Easter customs of pre-Christian origin are part of the Easter festival.
May Day is also known as Labor Day, May Day or Labor Movement Day. It is a public holiday in Germany, Austria, parts of Switzerland and many other countries, such as Italy, Russia, PR China, Greece, France, Sweden, Finland, Turkey, Mexico, Thailand, North Korea, Portugal and Brazil.
The Ramadan festival or ʿĪdu l-Fitr (Arabic عيد الفطر, DMG ʿĪdu l-Fiṭr, "festival of breaking the fast", Turkish Ramazan Bayramı) is an Islamic festival at the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. In Turkish, the festival is also known as the Sugar Festival (Şeker Bayramı). The festival, with which the 29 to 30 day fasting period comes to an end, is celebrated in the first three days of the following month Schauwal (see Islamic calendar). It is the second main festival of Islam after the Islamic Festival of Sacrifice (Arabic: Esdu l-A Hauptā). Like all Islamic festivals, it moves slowly backwards through the solar year (approx. 11 days per year) and can therefore take place at any time of the year.
Ascension of Christ (in Switzerland and Liechtenstein: Ascension) designates in Christianity the belief in the return of Jesus Christ as Son of God to his Father in heaven. Ascension Day is celebrated on the 40th day of the Easter festival circle, 39 days after Easter Sunday. That is why the festival always falls on a Thursday. The earliest possible date is April 30; the latest possible June 3rd.
Pentecost (from Greek πεντηκοστή [ἡμέρα], pentekostē [hēmera], "the fiftieth day") is a Christian festival of Jewish origin. It goes back to the Jewish weekly festival Shavuot and is celebrated like this on the fiftieth day after Easter or Passover. The faithful celebrate the sending of the Holy Spirit. In the New Testament in the Acts of the Apostles it is told that the Holy Spirit came down on the apostles and disciples when they were gathered in Jerusalem for the festival of Pentecost (Shavuot) (Acts 2: 1-41 EU). In the Christian tradition, this date is also understood as the foundation of the church. Pentecost is mentioned as a Christian festival for the first time in 130.
The Festival of Sacrifice (Arabic عيد الأضحى, DMG ʿĪdu l-Aḍḥā, Albanian Kurban Bajrami, Kurd. Cejna Qurbanê, Turkish Kurban Bayramı, Bosn. Kurban (-Hadži) Bajram or Kurbam Bajram, Persian عید قربان eyd-e Qurban , West Africa: 'Tabaski') is the highest Islamic festival. It is celebrated at the climax of the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, which begins annually on the tenth of the Islamic month of Dhu l-hiddscha and lasts for four days. Due to the Islamic lunar calendar, the festival of sacrifice can take place at any time of the year, the shift takes place backwards in the solar calendar by usually 11 days. Arabic-speaking Christians also use this name to refer to Easter. However, this article only covers the Islamic festival. Before 'Īd al-fitr, the festival of breaking the fast at the end of the month of Ramadan, it is the more important of the two' Īd festivals (from Arabic عيد, DMG ʿīd, "festival").
The feast of the Assumption of the Virgin goes back to a feast of Mary, which Cyril of Alexandria introduced in the 5th century. He set this feast on August 15th, the day on which the pagans were already celebrating the Ascension of the Astraea. Belief in the bodily acceptance of Mary into heaven has been attested since the 6th century and was established in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. in the Apostolic Constitution "Munificentissimus Deus" raised to dogma for the Roman Catholic Church. The Assumption of Mary is not directly reported in the Bible, but some scriptures are interpreted as references to it (compare for example Rev 12.1 EU and the Coronation of Mary). Even if the expression “Assumption of Mary” is popular in German, the theological way in which Mary is admitted to heaven is clearly differentiated from the Ascension of Christ in terms of the wording and the facts of the case. In many languages two different words are used, for example in Latin: Ascensio Christi (ascension of Christ into heaven), but Assumptio Mariae (assumption of Mary into heaven). In this way, the redeemer should be clearly distinguished from the redeemed. The festival also has the names Dormitio Mariae (Latin), Koimesis (Greek) or the Dormition of the Virgin, which have already been attested; in the Orthodox Church, which has not dogmatized the physical reception of Mary, this term is used exclusively.
All Saints' Day (Latin: Omnium Sanctorum), celebrated on November 1st in the Western Church or on the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Orthodox Churches, is a solemn festival of the Roman Catholic Church or Principal Feast of the Anglican Church, a festival (“Remembrance Day of the saints ”) in the Lutheran churches and is also celebrated in other Protestant churches. All Saints' Day is remembered for all saints, including those who have not been canonized, as well as the many saints whose holiness no one knows but God.
Christmas, also called (Holy) Christmas Festival, is the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. The feast day is December 25th, Christmas Day (Roman Catholic also solemnity of the birth of the Lord), whose celebrations begin on the eve, on Christmas Eve (also Christmas Eve, December 24th). It is a public holiday in many states and the start of the Christmas break; In Germany, Austria and many other countries, December 26th is added as the second Christmas holiday, which is celebrated as St. Stephen's Day in the Roman Catholic and Old Catholic Churches.
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