What hereditary diseases are caused by longevity

Overview of immunodeficiency diseases

Immunodeficiency diseases are characterized by a malfunction of the immune system. This causes infections that come back more frequently, are more serious, and last longer than usual.
  • Immunodeficiency disorders are usually due to drug use or a long-term, serious illness (such as cancer), but they are sometimes inherited.

  • Affected people have frequent, unusual, or unusually serious, or long-lasting infections and may develop an autoimmune disease or cancer.

  • Symptoms in these people suggest that doctors have immunodeficiency. The exact nature of the disease is determined with the help of blood tests.

  • Those affected are given antimicrobial preparations (e.g. antibiotics) to treat and prevent infections.

  • If there are too few antibodies (immunoglobulins) or if the antibodies are not working normally, immunoglobulins may be given.

  • A stem cell transplant is sometimes done if the disease is serious.

With immunodeficiencies, the ability of the immune system to defend the body against foreign or abnormal cells (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and cancer cells) attacking it is impaired. As a result, unusual bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, lymphomas, or other cancers can develop.

Another problem is that up to 25 percent of people with an immunodeficiency disorder also have an autoimmune disorder (such as immune thrombocytopenia). In an autoimmune disease, the immune system attacks the body's own tissue. Sometimes the autoimmune disease occurs before the immunodeficiency becomes symptomatic.

There are two types of immunodeficiency diseases:

  • Primary erythrocytosis: These disorders are usually present at birth and are genetic disorders that are usually inherited. They typically come to light in infancy or childhood. Some primary immunodeficiency diseases (such as general variable immunodeficiency) are not recognized until adulthood. There are more than 100 primary immunodeficiency diseases. All of these diseases are relatively rare.

  • Secondary erythrocytosis: These diseases usually develop later in life and can often be linked to the use of a drug or another disease, such as B. diabetes or an infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They are more common than the primary immunodeficiency diseases.

Some immunodeficiency diseases shorten the lifespan. Others last a lifetime without affecting lifespan, and still others heal with or without treatment.


Primary immunodeficiency

Primary immunodeficiency diseases can be caused by mutations, sometimes in a specific gene. If the mutated gene is on the X chromosome (sex chromosome), the associated disease is known as X-linked. X-linked diseases are more common in males. About 60 percent of people with primary immunodeficiency disease are male.

The primary immunodeficiency diseases are classified according to which component of the immune system is involved:

  • The cellular immune system that makes up T cells (T lymphocytes), a type of white blood cell that helps identify and destroy foreign and abnormal cells

  • Humoral and Cellular Immunity (B cells and T cells)

  • Phagocytes (cells that ingest and kill microorganisms)

  • Complement proteins (proteins that help immune cells kill bacteria and identify foreign cells that need to be destroyed)

The affected component of the immune system may be absent or present in reduced numbers, changed or malfunctioning.

More than half of primary immunodeficiency diseases are caused by problems with the B cells, making them the most common type.

Some primary immunodeficiency diseases

Secondary immunodeficiency diseases

These diseases can be caused by:

  • Lengthy (chronic) and / or serious illnesses such as B. diabetes or cancer

Immunodeficiency diseases can be caused by almost any long-lasting, serious illness. For example, diabetes can cause an immunodeficiency disease because high blood sugar levels affect the functioning of white blood cells. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the most common severe acquired immunodeficiency.

Many types of cancers can cause immunodeficiency disorders. For example, any cancer that affects the bone marrow (e.g., leukemia and lymphoma) can prevent the bone marrow from producing normal white blood cells (B cells and T cells) that are part of the immune system.

Malnutrition - regardless of whether all nutrients or just a single one is insufficiently available - can impair the immune system. If the body weight falls below 80 percent of the recommended weight due to malnutrition, the immune system is often impaired. If it drops below 70 percent, it usually leads to serious impairment.

Secondary immunodeficiency diseases also occur in the elderly and in those who have been hospitalized.