What is Qaafir in Islam

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The term "infidel" is one of the most misleading translations of Islamic terms and is often used as a translation of the term "kafir" [فر] (plural kuffar [كفّار]).

The Arabic verb with the consonants "k, f, r" [kafara] has the basic meaning "cover", "conceal", "veil", so that the covering or hiding of the complete truth is meant. But he can definitely have his own belief or Islam even assumes that ultimately everyone has some kind of belief or religion. This becomes particularly clear in the sura dedicated to the "Kuffar" in which it says:

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious and Most Merciful
1 Say: O you unbelievers,
2 I do not worship what you worship
3 you also do not worship what I worship.
4 Neither will I worship what you have worshiped,
5 you will still worship what I worship.
6 Your religion to you and my religion to me.

In practice, the term "unbeliever" means anyone who is not a Muslim, whereby the people of the book [ahl-ul-kitab] have a special position as guardians [dhimmi] among this group.

Regarding the ritual purity [tahara] of unbelievers, there are different views, which are explained under the term God-denier.